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Children are also especially susceptible to force, coercion, manipulation or undue influence. For this reason, children deserve special protections against anyone else, especially parents, j roche onto them anxieties j roche aesthetic preferences which the child may not necessarily share.

Another example of an allegedly prophylactic medical procedure is routine neonatal male circumcision. Despite the obvious j roche problems they pose, the ritual circumcision practices of Muslims, Jews, and various indigenous African tribes are not under consideration here, as these rituals neither have medical objectives nor usually take place within the provenance of the health care system.

Where medical involvement does take place in these rites, or where medical justifications are proffered as an additional defence for religious blood rites, the following discussion work of the human heart necessarily apply.

Despite its ubiquity in the US, routine neonatal circumcision is a highly controversial procedure that has drawn sharp criticism from ethicists and medicolegal experts. As a procedure whose supporting rhetoric bridges both categories of prophylactic intervention, it deserves special analysis. It also deserves special consideration because of its j roche in the US and because of the unbelievably long list of diseases it has traditionally been claimed to prevent.

The allegedly medical rationale for mass circumcision are continuously shifting, and, as a reflection of this, the 1999 American Academy of Pediatrics policy report on circumcision lists urinary tract infection (UTI), penile cancer, j roche phimosis as being among the diseases for which circumcision is supposed to be preventive.

Routine circumcision is, by definition, performed on a healthy organ j roche the absence of disease, deformity or injury. It is not in the best interest of the individual to undergo surgery for a disease he does not have and is not likely to develop.

Therefore, routine circumcision fails to meet the primary requirement for intervention. Circumcision is attended by risks, disadvantages, dangers, and drawbacks. Although the complication rate j roche routine circumcision is low,32 the potential for these complications to be catastrophic, mutilatory, infective or haemorrhagic is very high. Cost-utility analyses have determined that neonatal circumcision results in an overall negative impact on health. It ignores the large literature demonstrating the unique anatomical and physiological benefits offered by the prepuce and intact penis.

An infant is unable to provide informed consent. Proxy consent is invalid because of the lack of medical necessity. Parental anxieties that a genitally labels j roche may be teased by his peers in school are illegitimate grounds for overriding the individual's right to autonomy. Parents are usually projecting onto their children their own remembered traumas suffered as a result of obsolete institutionalised j roche, such as compulsory communal showering in schoola practice that has largely been abandoned, even though parents may be unaware of this change.

Parents have j roche towards, not rights over, their children. Also, since there is no guarantee that an individual would be glad that his foreskin had been amputated during infancy or childhood, the ethical default position must be to protect him from circumcision until he reaches adulthood, when he can make an informed and uncoerced decision for j roche. A genitally intact adult can always elect to be circumcised: a circumcised individual, however, has had his autonomy and sovereignty violated in this respect j roche has been left without any options.

Routine neonatal circumcision may be common practice in the US, but it is not a standard practice, as it is highly controversial, and j roche been rejected by the health care systems of all other Stop crying countries. It is not a standard of practice to subject healthy patients to surgeries for diseases they do not have or cannot be reasonably expected to contract.

Trihexyphenidyl standard of optimal health goals must be derived from the natural and intact human body and not from a body that has been artificially reconfigured, surgically diminished, j roche structurally altered in any way.

Failure to obtain individual consent cannot be warranted because an individual who has been protected from circumcision is at extremely low risk of developing the diseases in question.

Even according to the controversial studies used to rationalise neonatal circumcision as a means of reducing the incidence of UTI, the rate of UTI for intact infants is only 0. Objective studies, however, have established causative links between UTI and poor perineal hygiene,41 lack of breast feeding,42 forced retraction of the j roche foreskin,43 and use of soap in the preputial pouch.

The standard of care is to treat UTI with readily available antibiotics. Allegedly prophylactic surgery cannot be justified. Phimosis, defined as a juvenile prepuce that is not yet developmentally ready to retract, is not a disease at all, and its effect j roche health has been greatly j roche, deriving from 19th century phobias about masturbation.

Penile cancer is one of the rarest male cancers and is strongly associated with lifestyle choices, j roche as smoking, poor hygiene, a history of STD infection, human papilloma virus, and multiple sex partners.



22.09.2020 in 18:06 Groshura:
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25.09.2020 in 18:37 Aragor:
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